ARTHUR W. ORTON

ARTHUR W. ORTON _Ezekiel, they say, "saw de wheel"--but he saw somewhat more than that. And Orton suggests that what he saw made perfectly good sense ... to the understanding!_ Illustrated by Orton * * * * * We are told from our Sunday School days that the Bible is a "living book," the oldest of man's written works that is read and used anew, from generation to generatio.....

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LIEGE

Late Middle Ages and Renaissance

The strategic position of Liege has made it a frequent target of armies and insurgencies over the centuries. It was fortified early on with a castle on the steep hill that overlooks the city's western side. In 1345, the citizens of Liege rebelled against Prince-Bishop Engelbert III de la Marck, their ruler at the time, and defeated him in battle near the city. Shortly after, a unique political system formed in Liege, whereby the city's 32 guilds shared sole political control of the municipal government. Each person on the register of each guild was eligible to participate, and each guild's voice was equal, making it the most democratic system that the Low Countries had ever known. The system spread to Utrecht, and left a democratic spirit in Liege that survived the Middle Ages.
At the end of the Liege Wars, a rebellion against rule from Burgundy that figured prominently in the plot of Sir Walter Scott's 1823 novel Quentin Durward, Duke Charles the Bold of Burgundy, witnessed by King Louis XI of France, captured and largely destroyed the city in 1468, after a bitter siege which was ended with a successful surprise attack. Liege was technically still part of the Holy Roman Empire. After 1477, the city came under the rule of the Habsburgs and, after 1555, under Spanish sovereignty, although its immediate rule remained in the hands of its prince-bishops. The reign of Erard de la Marck (1506–1538) coincides with the Renaissance Liegeoise. During the Counter-Reformation, the diocese of Liege was split and progressively lost its role as a regional power. In the 17th century the prince-bishops came from the Bavarian family Wittelsbach. They ruled over Cologne and other bishoprics in the northwest of the Holy Roman Empire as well.

LIEGE ON THE LINE OF MARCH [Illustration: GLENNA L. BIGELOW] LIEGE ON THE LINE OF MARCH An American Girl's Experiences When the Germans Came Through Belgium by GLENNA LINDSLEY BIGELOW New York: John Lane Company London: John Lane, The Bodley Head MCMXVIII Copyright, 1918, by John Lane Company _TO THE KING OF THE BELGIANS_ _Multitudes upon multitudes they throng A.....

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